Technology

Industrial companies, forestry and agriculture annually produce a large amount of biomass wastes. These wastes mostly don’t used because of different technological and economic factors. They have some disadvantages for technological application: dispersion at territory with low density, hygroscopicity with biological activity, low bulk density, etc.

Fast pyrolysis is one of the economically efficient technologies for processing of lignocellulosic feedstock at present time. Liquid products obtained by fast pyrolysis have energy density 12 times larger than initial biomass and can be effectively transported for further treatment.

Our original patented technology of fast ablative pyrolysis allows processing of wastes at the place of their formation into such useful products as biooil and biochar. These products further can be treated for production of fuel, chemicals, materials and other traditional products by the means of current infrastructure.

 

Physicochemical nature of the process of fast ablative pyrolysis consist in mechanically activated thermal decomposition of organic polymers of biomass in absence of the oxidizer at comparatively low temperatures of 450-550°C, high heating rate and low products residence time at reaction zone (up to 2-3 s).

The process is carried out as follows. Biomass preliminarily dried to moisture content less than 10% and grinded to size less than 50 mm is fed to the reactor. There mechanically activated thermal decomposition of the biomass in absence of the oxidizer by the heat produced at energy module. In the result char and gas-vapor mixture are produced.

Fast cooling and condensation of the gas-vapor mixture allow separation of liquid (biooil) and combustible gas. Combustible gas go for combustion and production of heat for the process.

Fast pyrolysis products

Liquid products of thermochemical processing of lignocellulosic biomass (biooil) are the dark liquid with smoky odor. When produced from lignocellulosic feedstock biooil conform the requirements of ASTM D 7544-10.

Table. Main properties of pyrolysis liquid products

Parameter, Unit Value
1 Lower heat of combustion, MJ/kg, more than 15
2 Density at 20°С, kg/m3 1100-1300
3 Water content, w%, less than 30
4 Content of solid particles, w%, less than 2,5
5 Kinematic viscosity at 20°С, mm2/с, less than 125
6 Sulfur content, w%, less than 0,05
7 Ash content, w%, less than 0,25
8 Ignition point, °C, more than 45
9 Pour point, °C, less than -9
10 pH 2-3

Liquid products of fast ablative pyrolysis of lignocellulosic feedstock contain low-molecular compounds and oligomeric products and resins.

Solid products of thermochemical processing of lignocellulosic biomass represent fine-dispersed black powder with high carbon content.

 

Table. Main properties of char

Parameter, Unit Value
1. Lower heat of combustion, MJ/kg 20-33
2. Density, kg/m3 260-380
3. Carbon content, w% 40-70
4. Ash content, w% До 15
5. Characteristic size, mm 0,1

 

Biooil application:

  • Alternative fuel for small and public energy production (application in boilers as replacement for petroleum derived heating oil and fuel oil.
  • Components of motor fuels
  • Binder for composite materials (production of biopolymers, replacement of phenol in phenol- formaldehyde resins, replacement of polyols in polyurethanes up to 30%):
  • Feedstock for road construction (addition to bitumen as adhesive up to 30%);
  • Feedstock for chemical industry (separation of useful components, rectification, production of oils and motor fuels).